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Reverse engineering and modern design

1 background of the emergence and development of reverse engineering

in the Second World War, dozens of countries were involved in the scourge of war and suffered from the trauma of war. The defeated countries, in particular, were eager to recover and revitalize their economies after the end of World War II. In the early 1960s, Japan put forward the policy of building a country through science and technology: "one generation of introduction, two generations of localization, three generations of export improvement, and four generations of occupation of the international market", which is the most prominent in the automotive, electronic, optical equipment, household appliances and other industries. In order to improve localization, it is urgent to digest, absorb, improve and tap the potential of products from other countries. This is reverse design or reverse engineering. The two are the same connotation, only different formulations in different countries. Up to now, it has become an indispensable means or important countermeasure for all countries in the world in economic development. The massive adoption of reverse engineering has laid a good foundation for Japan's economic revitalization and the creation and development of various new products

in fact, any product, including innovation, improvement and imitation, contains the inheritance and application of existing science and technology. Therefore, the application of reverse thinking in engineering has a long history, and it appeared in the early 1960s to put forward this term and study it as a science

The competition mechanism of market economy has penetrated into all fields. How to develop science and technology and economy, countries all over the world are studying countermeasures. The common features can be summarized into four countermeasures: (1) vigorously promote creativity. Including new ways of thinking, new principles, new theories, new schemes, new structures, new technologies, new materials, new processes, new instruments, etc. For the development of a country's national economy, creativity is the eternal theme. (2) Research and apply new design theories and methods to transform and improve the traditional methods, so that new products can be designed quickly and well. (3) Computer applications are widely introduced into the whole process of product design and development (prediction, decision-making, management, design and manufacturing, testing, sales services, etc.) in order to achieve the integration, intelligence and automation of these processes. (4) Research and application of reverse engineering enables us to create new products from a high starting point

2 the meaning of reverse engineering

reverse engineering is a highly comprehensive term. It is guided by design methodology, based on modern design theory, method and technology, and uses the engineering design experience, knowledge and innovative thinking of various professionals to dissect, deepen and recreate existing new products. It is the design of existing designs. This is the meaning of reverse engineering, with special emphasis on recreation as the soul of reverse engineering

2.1 positive design and negative design

people commonly call design, which generally refers to positive design. It is a favorite product that has become human needs through the creative work of designers without knowing the truth of a thing in advance. To this end, we must first put forward objectives and technical requirements according to market demand, carry out functional design, create new schemes, and turn them into products through a series of design activities. Generally speaking, positive design is a process from unknown to known and from imagination to reality. Its schematic diagram is shown in Figure 1

Figure 1 Schematic diagram of positive design process

reverse design is to seek the scientificity, technicality, progressiveness, economy, rationality, localization possibility, etc. of these information from the relevant information of known things (including hardware, software, photos, advertisements, intelligence, etc.). It is necessary to trace the scientific basis of these information, that is, fully digest and absorb, and the more important essence is to improve, tap the potential and re create on this basis. If the goal of counter request is limited to imitation, it is the most primitive and low-level imitation, and its quality and life cycle will not be competitive. What is more serious is infringement, which will be subject to property protection sanctions. Figure 2 is a schematic diagram of the reverse design process

if the key of positive design is to answer "how to do?", That is, after the design task is proposed, how to achieve and achieve the predetermined goal, then the key of reverse seeking is to answer "why do you do this?", That is, after the goal is known, it is necessary to explore and master how the designer of this goal realizes it step by step, ask what others think and do in their minds, and find out the design intention, technology, key and design theory and method. In this sense, positive design is active creation, while reverse design is passive first and then active creation, which is quite difficult. Therefore, reverse engineering is not a simple reverse process of positive design, because an advanced and mature raw material industry, facing the complex economic situation at home and abroad, agglutinates the wisdom and technology of designers, and needs to understand and digest, including many complex contents. It is often more difficult to understand others' technology than to create it by ourselves, because: (1) there are always "tricks", "know-how" and key technologies in advanced products, which we do not master; (2) Others' thinking will not tell you that it takes hard work to "dig into others' heads". Over the years, most of the products imitated by surveying and mapping in China can not reach the level of the original products, involving many reasons, contents and technologies, which shows how important it is to develop the research and application of reverse engineering

Figure 2 Schematic diagram of reverse design process

positive design and reverse design are different and complementary. People with rich positive design experience and level can significantly improve the reverse design level; The successful experience of anti design can promote the level of positive design. However, those who lack positive design experience cannot be fully digested and absorbed in reverse design. As a country, understanding other people's technology is only the first step. On this basis, it can be re created in combination with national conditions, and become a new product with autonomy and competitiveness, which is the complete significance and purpose of reverse engineering

2.2 reverse engineering and intellectual property

any new technology and product should be protected by relevant protection laws (such as patent law, intellectual property law, trademark law, etc.), which is an international common code of conduct, which can guide normal market competition and trade. Reverse engineering is by no means equal to stealing technology. It promotes the development of science and technology from the academic, engineering and technical aspects under the constraints of scientific and technological ethics and law. This is because:

(1) the design and development of any product always need to learn from and inherit the existing knowledge and technology. Products in the market always need to be learned by others. The key is to draw a clear line between property rights

(2) it is the law of development that the green is better than the blue. Developing new products through reverse seeking has a high starting point, short cycle and fast results. It is by no means copy

(3) the reverse of science is helpful to promote technological innovation, expand horizons, and cultivate new people as soon as possible

however, it should be emphasized that as a country and nation, in order to develop science and technology and revitalize the economy, we cannot rely entirely on reverse seeking to survive; Encouraging independent creativity is always the theme or theme

3 category of reverse objects

from the perspective of engineering technology, reverse objects can be summarized as physical reverse, software reverse and image reverse

3.1 reverse engineering of physical objects

as the name suggests, it is the key to put forward re creation through experiment, mapping and detailed analysis under the existing physical conditions. It includes the reverse of function, performance, scheme, structure, material, precision, use specification and many other aspects. The reverse object of the physical object can be the whole machine, component components and parts

the author has experienced the reverse of many products, and the following points can be used for reference

3.1.1 test plan and test method

reverse request of physical object, first of all, before disassembly, carry out comprehensive test and assessment of function and performance, and test its various functions and performance indicators. To this end, the following items should be solved:

(1) find out what functional indicators there are according to samples and instructions

(2) to carry out the test, formulate the test conditions and test specifications

(3) select and improve the test bench and corresponding test instruments and accuracy

(4) scientific processing of test results, including static data and dynamic data

(5) records of fault phenomena in the test provide a basis for further analysis

in short, through the test, we should objectively capture and reflect the true face of the original machine, and summarize its advantages and disadvantages. For some prototypes, not only bench tests but also field walking tests should be carried out when necessary

3.1.2 several key issues in surveying and mapping

(1) size and accuracy. Generally, the prototype should be subject to factory running in test and performance test. In this way, its size, shape, surface and other accuracy will change, so its tolerance and surface accuracy should be calculated instead

(2) curve and surface fitting. Although the feature points of some parts or components can be measured, it is difficult to outline their shape (such as three-dimensional surface), which needs to be solved by CMM and surface modeling in CAD (see software reverse engineering below)

(3) NDT problems. No damage is allowed to the parts of the prototype during surveying and mapping, and they should be able to be restored to the original state. For example, some parts have very thin coatings on the surface, such as wear resistance, corrosion resistance or aesthetics; Material composition and hardness; For the size and shape of the inner surface that are difficult to measure, nondestructive testing must be used. Generally, laser technology, spectral technology of material transfer, three-dimensional holographic display technology and so on can be used

(4) analysis of key problems and anti design problems after surveying and mapping. After surveying and mapping, it is necessary to turn it into a complete drawing, which requires various annotations and technical requirements for the working characteristics of parts; Special shape curves [2] (such as high-power cam contour, various transition curves, etc.) should be optimized to reverse their scientific basis; The strength and stiffness of box and other structural complex parts should be inversely calculated by finite element method

the reverse seeking after surveying and mapping is the further deepening of the reverse seeking after the experiment. Whether it can digest and find out, and put forward ways to improve and tap the potential and re create is the key of this stage. There are many contents to be done, and different objects still have their own special personalities. Here are only some problems in mechanical products

3.2 software reverse

product samples, technical documents, design books, operation instructions, drawings, relevant specifications and standards, management specifications and quality assurance manuals are all called technical software. There are three kinds of situations in software reverse engineering: first, there are both physical objects and a full set of technical software; Second, there are physical objects but no technical software; Third, there is no physical object, only a full set or part of the technical software. Each kind of reverse engineering has its own characteristics and difficulties. Here we will only introduce the following problems

3.2.1 reverse engineering of complex surfaces using CAD technology

there are many complex curves and surfaces, and their feature points can be measured, but it is difficult to fit and splice the original surfaces by manual drawing methods, such as the three-dimensional surfaces of hydraulic torque converter and turbocharger, the shape surface of automobile body, etc. With the development of modern science and technology, it is possible to measure accurately and reverse

(1) reverse calculation using coordinate measuring instrument and CAD software

coordinate measuring instrument can measure all the required three-dimensional point coordinates under the set benchmark. It is a surface digitization process. How to use these numerical information to form a surface requires surface reconstruction processing in CAD software. At present, among the commercialized CAD software, there are application modules for reverse engineering, such as Pro/engineering, unigraph, Cimatron, etc. after inputting the measurement data according to its format, various surfaces can be generated. The Automotive Engineering Department of Shandong Institute of engineering has also developed such software, and

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